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Panel on Cultural Movement in Aceh (in Bahasa Indonesia)

Panel on Cultural Movement in Aceh (in Bahasa Indonesia)


   
Reza Idria dan Azhari Aiyub

1.  Komunitas Tikar Pandan: Counter Hegemony dari “Lahan Kosong”
Reza Idria dan Azhari Aiyub
Komunitas Tikar Pandan
Abstrak
Konflik bersenjata dan bencana alam yang meluluhlantakkan berbagai aspek kehidupan telah menimbulkan beragam usaha dari komunitas dan persona dalam masyarakat Aceh untuk mengatasi dan bangkit kembali dari keterpurukan mereka. Salah satu kelompok yang lahir dan berusaha keluar dari dua fase terpuruk, konflik dan bencana tsunami, tersebut adalah Komunitas Tikar Pandan. Organisasi yang didirikan oleh sejumlah mahasiswa lintas universitas di Banda Aceh sejak tahun 2002 ini memilih ranah kultural sebagai ruang kegiatan mereka, satu pilihan yang cukup unik pada masa itu, pun hingga kini, yang mereka sebut sebagai “lahan kosong” yang tidak digarap. Setelah tsunami, organisasi tersebut berkembang dengan cara membelah diri hingga menjelma menjadi beberapa organisasi mandiri yang bernaung di bawah satu payung yang disebut Liga Kebudayaan. “Gerakan kebudayaan” dan counter hegemony yang mereka maknai sebagai ideologi lembaga telah diterjemahkan ke dalam wujud Sekolah Menulis Dokarim, Toko Buku Dokarim, Aneuk Mulieng Publishing, Metamorfosa Institute, Jurnal Kebudayaan Gelombang Baru, TV Eng Ong dan Museum HAM Aceh. Paper ini akan membedah sejarah, aktor, strategi, ideologi dan tantangan satu organisasi kebudayaan di Aceh pasca damai dan rehabilitasi bencana.

Keywords:
revitalisasi, budaya, hegemoni, simbol.

M. Yulfan dan Rizki Alfi Syahril

2. 




Komunitas Tikar Pandan diantara Stigma Kemiskinan Kultural dan Fakta Kemiskinan Struktural
M. Yulfan dan Rizki Alfi Syahril
Komunitas Tikar Pandan
Abstrak
Komunitas Tikar Pandan adalah lembaga swadaya masyarakat yang bermarkas dan berkatifitas di Aceh sejak tahun 2002. Selama satu dekade usia lembaga ini telah memainkan perannya dalam merevitalisasi dan mengorganisir kerja-kerja kebudayaan sejak masa konflik politik hingga rehabilitasi Aceh pasca tsunami. Secara umum, masyarakat Aceh dan publik luar yang menaruh perhatian terhadap kajian budaya kontemporer Aceh mengenal Komunitas Tikar Pandan sebagai organisasi yang fokus pada kerja-kerja kesenian dan pendidikan alternatif, sedikit sekali yang meneliti peran lembaga tersebut dalam menengahi isu kemiskinan di Aceh. Komunitas Tikar Pandan dalam kertas posisinya menyatakan bahwa salah satu dampak perang dan inflasi akibat politik bantuan post-tsunami Aceh adalah mencuatnya angka kemiskinan, terutama pada kawasan-kawasan sentra pertanian dan perkebunan di pedalaman tengah Aceh. Paper ini akan membentang peran Komunitas Tikar Pandan, cara pandang dan stratergi lembaga tersebut dalam isu poverty. Stigma bahwa rakyat malas dan bodoh sebagai penyebab utama kemiskinan kultural masyarakat Aceh diuji dan ditantang dengan fakta kemiskinan struktural yang didapat dari hasil kerja pengorganisiran dan pendidikan kritis yang dikerjakan Komunitas Tikar Pandan di kawasan Bener Meriah dan Aceh Besar.

Jesse Hession Grayman

3. 




“Maka Kami Membangun Cerita Sendiri”:  Sosok Abad Ke-19 dan Mitos Abad Ke-21 Dari Seorang Penyair Aceh, Dôkarim
Jesse Hession Grayman
Harvard University
Abstrak
Tidak ada sumber utama selain Snouck Hurgronje yang memberitahu kita tentang Abdul Karim, seorang penyair keliling yang lebih akrab dikenal dengan panggilan Dôkarim, yang menyusun Hikayat Prang Gompeuni tentang perang Aceh melawan penjajahan Belanda. Tersusun secara lisan dalam sajak Aceh, hikayat tersebut meminjam tema dan narasi langsung dari hikayat terkenal yang mendahuluinya sementara ia juga menceritakan rincian spesifik tentang keberanian prajurit, negosiasi politik, dan kehancuran masyarakat di tengah-tengah suasana perang. Hikayat Prang Gompeuni bukan saja menjadi karya yang terus bertambah ayat seiring dengan perkembangan perang yang masih berlangsung, tapi pertunjukkannya oleh Dôkarim selalu disesuaikan juga untuk memenuhi harapan dari setiap patron yang memesan pergelaran darinya.  Di antara pelanggan Dôkarim itu adalah Hurgronje sendiri yang memesan satu-satunya transkripsi lengkap dari Hikayat Prang Gompeuni dan Sang Pahlawan Perang Aceh terkenal Teuku Umar, yang akhirnya menghukum mati Dôkarim sebelum perang selesai karena Dôkarim disangka membelot kepada Belanda.  Tapi kita harus menafsirkan transkripsi Hurgronje dan tuduhan Teuku Umar sebagai narasi yang parsial saja.  Dalam peresentasi ini, saya akan menunjukkan bagaimana sosok ambigu Dôkarim di Aceh pada abad ke-19 berfungsi sebagai sebuah metafora produktif dan kisah peringatan bagi produsen budaya Aceh pada abad ke-21.  Komunitas Tikar Pandan khususnya telah memanfaatkan sosok Dôkarim dan membangkitkan warisan parsial tersebut menjadi sebuah mitos baru.  Para anggota LSM tersebut mengklaim kebebasan penyair yang ditinggalkan oleh Dôkarim untuk membangun cerita sendirinya yang mendukung suatu kewaspadaan kritis terhadap semua tokoh otoritas.  Saya menggunakan teori tentang struktur sosial rhizomatic yang digarap oleh Deleuze dan Guattari untuk menggambarkan sikap Tikar Pandan yang kritis dan senantiasa berkelit.


Special Panel on Visual Anthropology

Special Panel on Visual Anthropology

Don’t Disturb the Peace
Leslie Dwyer/Diyah Larasati/Degung Santikarma/Dag Yngvesson
Center for the Study of Gender and Conflict at the School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR) at George Mason University in Arlington, Virginia, U.S/Department of Theatre Arts and Dance at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S/Indonesian Legal Aid Foundation/University of Minnesota
Abstract
“Don’t Disturb the Peace” is a feature-length documentary currently in post-production. Filmed in 2012, it follows the length of the Banda Aceh-Calang highway, a US$250 million centerpiece of international aid, to explore the challenges of post-conflict peacebuilding. Stopping along the road to speak with farmers, fishermen, former combatants, teachers, taxi drivers, mothers and students, the film takes an ethnographic approach to social recovery, exploring how ordinary Acehnese are working to rebuild their communities and find new roadmaps for social justice. The film poses questions that resonate through and beyond Aceh: What does peace really mean? What does it take to create a community? And how does seeing conflict and peace-building through Acehnese eyes challenge and transform globalized models for reconciliation and psychosocial repair?


Panel on Art and Culture

Panel on Art and Culture


    
Margaret Kartomi

1. 




The Potency of Music and Dance in the Empowerment of Female Artists in Western Aceh
Margaret Kartomi
Monash University
Abstract
Lament and lullaby singing, the sitting dances meuseukat and malelang, and the standing dances manoe pocuk and pho are quintessential female expressions of artistry in western Aceh. They have long provided opportunities for women to shine in their social settings that are based on gender segregation. Early female artistic leaders include T. Aji Rakibah of Seunagan who is attributed with developing body percussion techniques and meuseukat in the late 19th –early 20th century, Mak Yang of Meulaboh who developed pho in the 1920s-30s, and Ibu Meriam, who developed malelang in the 1950s-60s. Based on my field travel in western Aceh in 2007-2011, this paper also shows how many performing art groups revived traditional performance genres and developed modern versions of these musical and dance forms under the leadership of such female artists as Cut Indah in Beutong Ateuh, Cut Asiah in Meulaboh, and Cut Nurhayati in Desa Gelanggang Gajah, with some groups making new beginnings or forming anew after the conflict and the tsunami, and some performing in the Festival of Music and Dance in Banda Aceh in 2009.

Toni Almuna

2.  -
Toni Almuna
Abstract
This paper examines responses, both positive and negative, towards the achievement of sexual rights in Aceh. It considers a situation in which religious-based laws have been imposed in the wake of two major crises – one social (32 years of armed conflict) and one natural (the 2004 tsunami). The Sharia implementation contributes to an emerging new crisis; that of continuing violation and oppression of women and sexual minorities amidst massive contemporary post-crisis development in Aceh. Analysis in this paper is through the lens of sexual rights and citizenship discourses. A Research carried out by the author found that people working in post-crisis reconstruction in Aceh, both in a government and NGO capacity respond very differently to these ongoing issues. Many resist direct involvement, even hindering interventions to address issues of sexual rights. However, some development actors remain pragmatic, viewing it as human rights issue and do what they can, where they can, to bring about change. This has resulted in a growing number of social movements - women’s and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) - that work actively to make rights, particularly sexual rights, a reality in the Aceh. Their strategy is to translate rights, into the ‘language’ of local norms and practices and include campaigning rights though art performance for example Beauty Pageant contests

Marjaana Jauhola

3.  Female Artists Shaping Visual and Aesthetic Landscapes of Tsunami and Conflict in Aceh
Marjaana Jauhola
-
Abstract
The aim of my paper/intervention is to engage into both academic, but more widely to contextualised discussion with students to talk about gendered experiences of post-tsunami and post-conflict Aceh through introducing the ceramic works by Endang Lestari and a recent dance performance commemorating the sudden death of ‘Putri’ in Langsa in September 2012. These artistic expressions will be contextualised and discussed in relation to the stories and experiences of Acehnese women in relation to gendered and sexualised violence, vulnerable bodies, and (im)possibility for expression aiming to find ways to articulate social critique and agency, but also finding possibilities of social recovery for silenced and marginalised voices.

Ari Palawi

4.  The Female Role in the Music Culture of Pesisir Melayu Tradition
Ari Palawi
Sir Zelman Cowen School of Music, Monash University
Abstract

This paper discusses change in the gender relations expressed in the practice of the couples dancing with solo vocal, violin, and drum accompaniment in Pulau Banyak, a group of islands off Aceh’s southwest coast, and the nearby town of Singkil in mainland Aceh. These Muslim, Pasisir Melayu (coastal Malay) people are mainly sea-oriented traders and fisherfolk who are traditionally tolerant of gender mixing in the traditional dancing, where men and women form part of the Pasisir Melayu (Coastal Malay) music-cultural group found along Sumatra’s west coast, approximately between Singkil and Sibolga. By all reports, men and women danced together in couples during Dutch colonial and early Indonesian Independence times, and both sexes sang the solo songs in pantun quatrains accompanied by male musicians. From c. 1965 the law forced all the people to belong to one of five religions; and Islam in Indonesia became increasingly conservative. Some ulamas who had insisted that women should not appear on stage appear to have resulted in males taking both female and male roles in the dancing, while women were only allowed to sing laments and lullabies in the domestic sphere.
The paper discusses a 2010 performance of mixed teenage couples dancing the Payung (Umbrella) dance accompanied by the Lagu Pulau Pinang (Penang Island Song) performed by a solo singer, violin (biola) and drums (gandang) in Pulau Banyak. Its thin implied harmonies in the violin part suggest Portuguese influence while the singing, song text and cyclic drum patter are clearly in Malay style. It is compared with recordings of performances from the 1970s to the present held in Monash University’s Sumatra Music Archive.
In my 2010 fieldwork in Pulau Balee and Pulau Tuangku in Pulau Banyak and Singkil I noted that in the villages the men still assumed the female as well as the male role in the dance performances and that the musicians were also all men, but that in the secondary schools girls and boys were allowed to dance together. This paper presents an hypothesis that the female role in these couples dances has changed from full participation to no participation, and finally participation only by teenage school pupils.

Karen Sri Kartomi Thomas

5.  Women's Positions of Power as Theatre Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century Riau Archipelago
Karen Sri Kartomi Thomas
Performance Research Unit, Centre for Theatre and Performance, Monash University
Abstract
The performing arts, including gender, were destabilized by the opening up of Natuna to large-scale gas and oil exploration in the 1970s. Approaches informed by feminist thought illustrate this by probing inequality and disparate power relations. In this paper, a feminist approach to the performing arts is advocated. From being an almost inaccessible group of remote islands for at least 6 months of the year due to monsoons, movement between the islands and mainland Sumatra has increased significantly resulting from the modest beginnings of affordable flights and ferry routes. In Natuna, the social impact of gas and oil exploration cannot be divorced from the pre-existing landscape with its layers of gender relations in theatre, Islamic adherence and economic disparities. This paper explores the changes the people’s oral performative transmission and preservation of their art has undergone in the last 30 years. My research in Natuna’s mendu theatre in the 1984-5 and in 2012-13 suggest that the opening up of the province not only reorganized gender relations among specific ethno-Malay performance groups, but also changed the content, form and meaning of the specific performing arts’ genres due to new audience demographics and a subsequent re-evaluating of expectations and tastes in theatre. Women in theatre positioned themselves differently as actors and dance-drama elders and teachers across society and across ethnic groups.


Panel on Psycho-social and Mental Health

Panel on Psycho-social and Mental Health


    
Carla R. Marchira

1.  




Training on Mental Health ForPrimaryHealth Care Workers to Provide Psychoeducation to Family Care Providers of Persons with A Psychotic Disorder. Lesson Learnt from Jogja’s Earthquake
Carla R. Marchira
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University
Abstract
Indonesia is a country that often experiences natural disasters. The tsunami in Aceh in 2004 and the earthquake in Jogyakarta in 2006 are critical examples. WHO has estimated that disasters increase the occurrence of mental disorders by 20%. However, in Indonesia, mental health facilities and resources are extremely limited, and the burden of care for persons suffering from severe mental disorder thus falls primarily on families. Indonesia has a national policy of integrating the management of mental health problems into the primary health care system.  However, in practice, such care is often not implemented effectively.
AfterJogja’s earthquake, several mental health programs were  implemented in primary care. Nevertheless, preliminary studies in primary health care centers in two subdisticts of the districtsBantul and GunungKidul, in Jogjakarta province, showed that there is very little or no training for health care providers on the diagnosis and treatment of severe mental disorder such as psychotic illnesses.
For that reason, a team from Jogyakarta is developing a program to provide training to prepare primary health care workers in three primary health care centers in Jogyakarta, Indonesia, to provide psychoeducation to family caregivers for persons with psychotic illnesses. We will evaluate the quality of the training program and provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the training program, which will support advocating with policy makers to support bringing such a training program to scale.
This paper will provide data about the mental health consequences of disaster and the need for long-term interventions that can be brought to scale to promote mental health services which can promote recovery for those with severe mental illnesses in the communities affected.

Tri Hayuning Tyas


2.  




Focus on social recovery in the aftermath of disaster: Responding the need for the provision of continuous care for people with mental health problems
Tri Hayuning Tyas
Faculty of Psychology, Gadjah Mada Unviversity
Abstract
A number of disaster occurred in Indonesia in the recent years, e.g Aceh tsunami in 2004, Jogjakarta earthquake in 2007, and eruption of Merapi in 2010. The have given chances for the humantarian responders to make improvement in sectoral service provision during and after emergency such as shelter, food, clean water and sanitation, rehabilitation of houses, economic recovery and health services. The interactions during response time often help reveal the presence of persons with severe mental health problems amongst the affected communities. In Aceh Tsunami and Jogjakarta  Merapi eruption cases, the persons found are ‘kept under control’ by being tied or confined, or known as pasung.
From the observation of humanitarian response in different affected communities, it is concerning that there is still very limited efforts thought out and provided tangibly to the persons with severe mental health problem. Reasons of the lacking response for the mental health are many include limited capability of relief workers or volunteers on the ground to identify the persons’ presence and to bring the findings into an integrated planned and sustainable response.  When the needs of the mentally health persons are not addressed accordingly by capable responders, the problems faced by the relatives in difficult time of disaster increase.
This paper will share some findings from a research related to this issue, carried out in Aceh in 2007, and the activities has been conducted by the local communities as an effort to continue the improvement of mental health service. Recent preliminary study on similar issue shows a significant number of people with mental health problems amongst the people affected by volcano eruption in Central Java. Interestingly both places show that pasung are still being practiced, and more-humane ways of taking care of the people still needs to be sought for. The improvement of mental health service is deeply influenced by willingness of local government to facilitate the process.  A continuity of care in broader terms will also be discussed.

Subandi


3.  




Developing Psychological Services in Primary Health Care in Aceh Post tsunami to Promote Social Recovery
Subandi
Faculty of Psychology, Gadjah Mada University
Abstract
Following tsunami in Aceh, there have been a large number of Government institutions and NGO’s from around the world set up many kinds of disaster response programs. One of them was UniversitasGadjahMada program. Funded by World Vision Australia, this program aimed at strengthening health care system in Meulaboh district and Banda Aceh. In the area of mental health UGM program implemented by providing clinical and psychological services in primary health care.Including in the psychological services were counseling, psychotherapy, home visit and psycho-education to improve mental health condition and awareness of Acehnese people.
While providing psychological services program was intended as a short term response to disaster, the long-term UGM program was setting up a psychological study program under the Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University. This study program recruited 36 students in 2007 and their first graduates were inaugurated in 2011. During that time a continuous and closed supervision in academic issues was conducted by staffs from Faculty of Psychology, GadjahMada University. Meanwhile some of academic staffs of the psychology study program continued providing psychological services in four primary health care centres in Banda Aceh. The development of research capacity among academic staffs began in 2011 by involving them in a project entitled: Inter-University Partnership for Strengthening Health care system in Indonesia: Building New Capacityfor Mental Health care.
This paper discusses many factors need to be considered in order to have a short term disaster response to have a long term effect to help Acehnese go through social recovery in the area of mental health.

Byron J Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good


4.  




The Importance of Mental Health Services in the Development of Sustainable Programs of Social Recovery
Byron J Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good
Harvard Medical School
Abstract
Humanitarian organizations responding to disaster and conflict settings often recognize the importance of “trauma” in inhibiting recovery of populations, and have undertaken psychosocial and mental health programs aimed at improving both mental health and social functioning of individuals and communities.  These programs are often focused on acute needs.  As the acute situation subsides, programs develop “exit strategies” aimed turning over programs to local government agencies and NGO’s which can “sustain” these activities.  In Indonesia, “sustainability” has often been more of a slogan than reality.  The extraordinary limitations of mental health resources available have meant that even with the best of intentions, humanitarian organizations have largely failed to make mental health programs sustainable in ways that will support longer term recovery of individuals and communities and provide services for those most in need.  This paper will discuss a strategy involving interuniversity partnerships, supported by USAID, and collaborations between university staff and provincial and district level health offices to support the development of capacity for longer term, sustainable programs that will support social recovery in communities.


Special Panel on History

  Special Panel on History


   
Andrew Peacock

1.  Aceh and Indian Ocean Networks in the Seventeenth Century
Andrew Peacock
Lecturer in Middle Eastern History
University of St Andrews, UK
Abstract

This paper presents evidence for Aceh’s place in links across the Indian Ocean from an underutilised and unusual source, HasanTaj al-Din’s Arabic chronicle of Maldives. This work sheds important light from a non-European perspective on religious and commercial links stretching from the Ottoman lands to Aceh. Of particular interest is the chronicles description of the arrival of a descendant of the famous Sufi ‘Abd al-Qadir Jilani in Aceh. He shows how this Sufi from Ottoman Syria, Muhammad Shams al-Din, spread the Qadiriyyah to India, Aceh and the Maldives and offers valuable evidence for the political and social role of the Qadiriyyah. This offers a new perspective on the religious networks of the seventeenth century, and confirms the crucial role of the Ottoman lands in religious developments in Southeast Asia and Aceh in particular. While the role of Kurdish and Hijaziulema in this respective has long been acknowledged, this influence was generally thought to be indirect, mediated through scholarly networks in Mecca and Medina. HasanTaj al-Din’s evidence shows that in fact there were Ottoman men of religion who came in person to Southeast Asia to spread their tariqas.

 

Annabel Teh Gallop

2.  The Great Seal of Aceh
Annabel Teh Gallop
The British Library, UK
Abstract

For 250 years, the design of the great ‘ninefold’ seal of Aceh was essentially unchanged: a central circle containing the name of the reigning sultan of Aceh, surrounded by eight smaller circles containing the names of their predecessors.  Fourteen seals of nine rulers of Aceh have been documented, from the mid-seventeenth century until the formal end of the sultanate in 1903.
In 1906, the Dutch scholar Rouffaer was the first to deduce that the great seal of Aceh was modelled on the genealogical seal of the Mughal emperors of India.  What was not fully appreciated, though, was the degree of ‘local genius’ involved, for the Acehnese had simply taken the design principle of the Mughal seal and adapted it to their own needs, and there are fundamental differences between the two sovereign seals.  The earliest known ninefold seal is that of Sultanah Tajul Alam Safiatuddin Syah (r.1641-1675), daughter of Iskandar Muda, and present evidence suggests that the innovative design was introduced during her reign and not, as has been assumed, during that of her father.  
In all the Acehnese ninefold seals, the great surprise is that all the names of the early rulers derive from Iskandar Muda’s maternal line, who ruled in the Dar al-Kamal region of Aceh.  Iskandar Muda’s paternal heritage, the dynasty of Makota Alam, is completely unrepresented.  There is no mention on any seal of some of the most renowned names in Acehnese history, such as Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah (d.1530), the first sultan of Aceh, or his son Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar, responsible for a great expansion of empire and for establishing direct ties with the Ottoman empire.  The consistent emphasis instead on the lineage of the Dar al-Kamal dynasty has important implications for our understanding of the Acehnese view of the history and nature of the sultanate of Aceh through three centuries.

 

Anthony Reid

3.  Tectonic disaster and the refashioning of North Sumatra
Anthony Reid
Australian National University
Abstract

The appallingly destructive earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and around the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004 has, among its many results, prompted much-needed scientific attention to the past record of this dangerous section of the ‘Ring of Fire’.  The geologists have found evidence in sand deposits and coral uplift of past tears along the subduction zone of a force equal to that of 2004.  Every several centuries there must be such a release of pressure, and the last one on a scale equivalent to 2004 appears to have been in the 14th Century. No doubt there were earlier ones at regular intervals, some of which probably sparked the tsunamis (reported as inexplicable coastal floods) found in Indian and Sri Lankan traditions in the first centuries BCE.
Historians of the region have done much less so far to contribute to this growing understanding.  This paper will bring together such evidence as we do have on North Sumatran mega-events of the past, and discuss what they may have meant for the history of Sumatra and its built heritage.


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